Liberalism, 14

Philosophy Liberalism—both as a political current and an intellectual tradition—is mostly a modern phenomenon that started in the 17th century, although some liberal philosophical ideas had precursors in classical antiquity. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius praised “the idea of a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea…

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Gibbon on Julian – 16

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter XXIV The retreat and death of Julian Part I The philosophical fable which Julian composed under the name of the Cæsars, is one of the most agreeable and instructive productions of ancient wit. During the freedom and equality of the days of the…

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Gibbon on Julian – 12

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter XXIII: Reign of Julian Part II The inclination of Julian might prefer the gods of Homer, and of the Scipios, to the new faith, which his uncle had established in the Roman empire; and in which he himself had been sanctified by the…

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Gibbon on Julian – 11

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter XXIII: Reign of Julian Part I The religion of Julian. Universal toleration. He attempts to restore and reform the pagan worship. To rebuild the temple of Jerusalem. His artful persecution of the Christians. Mutual zeal and injustice. The character of Apostate has injured…

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